You Can Trade Bitcoin Futures. But Should You?

Trading in bitcoin futures opened today on Cboe Global Markets Inc. Its rival, CME Group Inc., will soon follow suit. It’s a milestone in the acceptance of the digital currency by the world of mainstream investing, spurred in part by bitcoin’s meteoric rise this year. Skeptics still abound, however, including executives at some of the world’s largest banks. For the doubters, at least there’s this silver lining: Futures trading may add an opportunity to burst what they see as a bubble.

1. How does bitcoin normally trade?

On a network of unregulated exchanges, which have their own prices for the digital currency — and a long history of problems that range from service crashes to hacks and thefts. Buying and holding bitcoin is essentially a bet that its value will rise further. Not everybody who wants to get involved in this market thinks so.

2. What does it mean to trade bitcoin futures?

Futures contracts — which derive their value from some underlying thing like corn, wheat, or in this case, a digital currency — oblige a buyer to pay for something at an agreed-upon price at a certain date in the future. They can be used to make a bet on which way the market for a product is going to move. They can also be used to short a market, or bet that prices will fall.

3. Who’s going to be offering futures contracts?

Three of the largest U.S. exchange companies, all overseen by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, are debuting bitcoin futures contracts. Cboe is getting its contract to market first. CME will begin offering a competing product on Dec. 18. Nasdaq Inc. is planning to introduce bitcoin futures next year. The other major U.S. exchange player, Intercontinental Exchange Inc., has not yet announced any plans to do so. “We may be stupid for not being first on that,” Jeff Sprecher, CEO of ICE, said at an investor conferencethis month.

4. Why are they doing it?

Exchanges want to offer what investors want to trade, and a lot more people want to trade in the bitcoin market than even a year ago. Coinbase, a large bitcoin exchange, was overwhelmed by heavy traffic as bitcoin soared toward $10,000 in late November. CME, which as recently as October hadn’t made a decision on how to address cryptocurrencies, ultimately decided the allure was too much to resist. For traders, bitcoin offers an entirely new landscape to navigate. One hallmark of bitcoin trading is unpredictable price swings, a stark contrast to the eerie calm that’s settled over other financial markets, including U.S. equities…

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